What is the development history of photovoltaic modules?
A photovoltaic module is a flat-plate-shaped power generating device formed by a certain number of solar cells through electrical connection and mechanical packaging. Photovoltaic modules are like a low-voltage DC generator, which directly converts solar energy into electrical energy, and connects to an inverter to form an AC power source. A power supply system composed of multiple photovoltaic modules is called a photovoltaic power station. Next, we will introduce the development history of photovoltaic modules in detail.
Since the American Bell Labs produced the world’s first practical monocrystalline silicon solar cell in 1954, photovoltaic power generation as a new type of clean power supply method has been continuously developed. Early photovoltaic power generation was mainly used to meet the power supply needs of telephones in areas without electricity. Due to its special advantages, this technology soon became favored by the aerospace industry.
Since the successful launch of the first US satellite using solar cells, Pioneer 1 in the late 1950s, all spacecraft in the world have used solar cells to provide electricity. In order to protect the solar cells and enable them to resist the erosion of the external environment, people use glass and other materials to encapsulate the solar cells to form photovoltaic modules. After 1975, the design and production process of photovoltaic modules, and packaging materials have made great progress. The material system, production process, performance evaluation and technical standards of photovoltaic modules have been gradually improved and established. In 1985, people increased the warranty period of photovoltaic modules from 5 years to 10 years, and the structural design, packaging process and materials of photovoltaic modules were basically finalized, and there has been no essential change so far.
Since the 1990s, large enterprises such as Siemens of Germany, BP of the United Kingdom, Shell of the Netherlands, Sharp of Japan, Kyocera and other large enterprises have played an important role in promoting the development of photovoltaic module technology. The research of components focuses on reducing costs, improving efficiency and extending life. In 1997, the warranty period for the use of photovoltaic modules has been promised to reach 20 years; starting in 1998, the output of relatively low-cost polycrystalline silicon photovoltaic modules began to exceed that of monocrystalline silicon modules.
In the 21st century, especially after 2009, thanks to technological breakthroughs in polycrystalline silicon cells and rapid development of large-scale production, the price of photovoltaic modules has been greatly reduced, and the quality of modules has also been greatly improved, thus setting off a global photovoltaic power station Construction wave. At present, some new products such as double-glazed photovoltaic modules, integrated micro-inverter photovoltaic modules, new backsheet materials and n-type high-efficiency photovoltaic modules continue to emerge, providing more choices and market space for the promotion and application of photovoltaic technology.
In the early days, more than 90% of the photovoltaic modules produced in China were exported, and the main raw materials came from abroad. Since 2012, China has vigorously promoted photovoltaic applications. After just a few years of development, it has now become a global photovoltaic producer and photovoltaic application country.
Photovoltaic modules are the carrier of solar cells and the most important part of photovoltaic power plants. The types and forms of photovoltaic modules are determined by the types of packaging materials and solar cells.
The packaging materials of photovoltaic modules mainly include glass, EVA/POE/PVB film, silica gel, PET/KPK/TPT backsheets, etc. Through different combinations of these packaging materials, modules suitable for different environments can be produced. Traditional aluminum frame backplane components are generally used in large ground power stations and commercial civil roofs. In recent years, double glass modules have gradually been used in ground power stations and commercial and civil roofs; in combination with buildings, 5mm+5mm or thicker double-layer glass is generally used. Components; low-power components used for daily consumption can use polymer materials instead of glass as the front cover material, which is light in weight and convenient to carry. For example, components used in lawn lamps and photovoltaic toys can be encapsulated with epoxy resin. In short, the packaging technology of photovoltaic modules is interrelated with specific uses and applications.
The above is the development history of photovoltaic modules.
The principle of photovoltaic modules,You can learn more about photovoltaic modules.